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Market Rally Loses Steam

A rally spurred by optimism over the U.S. economy and a rebound in commodity prices lost some steam Friday, as European shares and U.S. stock futures slipped.

China’s Turbulence Exposes Risks to Europe’s Growth

The eurozone’s heavy reliance on exports leaves the region vulnerable as emerging markets stumble.

Austria Says at Least 70 Migrants Found Dead in Truck

The number of migrants found dead in a truck off a highway outside of Vienna has been raised to more than 70, from an initial estimate of between 30 and 50.

Fed Urged to Press Ahead With Rate Rise

After months of forewarning by the Federal Reserve that it is preparing to raise short-term interest rates, some international officials have a message: Get on with it already.

IMAGE 1 of 9

‘Craft’ Bourbon Is in the Eye of the Distiller

“Craft” distilleries have mushroomed in the U.S. to 588 from 51 over the past decade. Feeling the heat from the new competition, global liquor conglomerates are getting in on the act, and not letting definitions get in the way.

Hacker Killed by Drone Was Islamic State’s ‘Secret Weapon’

That Islamic State’s Junaid Hussain was targeted directly by the U.S. and U.K. shows the extent to which digital warfare has upset the balance of power on the modern battlefield. 74

Big Oil Faces Prospect of Lower Refining Profits

For much of the past year, the world’s biggest energy companies suffered through an oil-price rout with one silver lining: Their little-loved refineries were churning out big profits again. Now, that bright spot could be fading, even as oil prices sink.

Anger Over Garbage in Lebanon Blossoms into Demands for Reform

Calls for political reform, however, collide with country’s entrenched, sectarian-based political system.

Ukraine’s U.S.-Born Finance Minister Praised for Persistence

Natalie Jaresko led months of tense negotiations with creditors, clocking thousands of air miles to reach a debt-relief deal that should help secure further bailout funds from the International Monetary Fund.

Ex-Archbishop Dies Ahead of Vatican Child Abuse Trial

The former papal nuncio to the Dominican Republic, who was under house arrest on charges of child abuse and possession of child pornography, has died, according to the Vatican.

Swiss Economy Beats Expectations

Switzerland’s economy grew in the second quarter, defying expectations that it would slip into its first recession in six years.

Eurozone Businesses, Households More Upbeat

Businesses and households across the eurozone became slightly more upbeat in August, an indication that the slowdown in economic growth during the second quarter is unlikely to turn into a more severe downturn.

Pentagon Advances Partnership with Tech Firms for Flexible Electronics

The Pentagon is announcing that it will contribute seed money to a consortium of Silicon Valley firms to develop what defense officials say is a promising new technology incorporating “flexible” electronics.

Sanctions Bite Massive Gas Project in Russian Arctic

A race to shore up funding for the $27 billion Yamal LNG energy project in the Russian Arctic has emerged as a test of Moscow’s ability to weather Western sanctions.

As China Celebrates Victory, Businesses Cope With Loss

Beijing ordered more than 10,000 factories to close or reduce output ahead of a high-profile military parade, crimping many businesses in the capital and leaving some workers without wages.

Hermès Warns of Currency Pressure

French luxury-goods company Hermès International warned that volatile currencies will erode its profitability in the second half of the year with profit seen rising more slowly than sales.

How Do You Short China?

Traders are scouring stock, bond and currency markets for ways to make money on the malaise afflicting China. Some are piling into insurance-like contracts that would pay out if the country defaulted on a small pool of its foreign-denominated bonds.

5 Days That Taught Investors All They Need to Know

A Wall Street veteran tells us it took just five days for him to learn all he needed to know about investing. The problem is, they've happened over the past 15 years.

Stock Halts Added to Monday’s Market Chaos

Monday’s mayhem in stocks appears to have been exacerbated by rules designed to ensure orderly trading, executives and traders said, the latest ripple from investors’ embrace of stock-linked funds.

China’s Banks Face Worst Year in More Than a Decade

China’s biggest lenders are scrambling to clear rising bad loans from their books, as a faltering economy weighs on loan repayments and sets banks on pace for their worst year since they began listing shares 13 years ago.

Heard on the Street

Stock Market Investors Should Watch the Credit Canary

The corporate bond market could give vital clues to equities investors about the outlook for growth and inflation.

Mansion

A Swedish Couple’s Lakeside Oasis

Entrepreneur Olof Sköld and his partner, Helene Carson, build a retreat for their family

Life

Adventure & Travel

Berlin’s Waterfront Heats Up for Travelers

The capital’s long-overlooked riverbanks are now party central, lined with hot hotels and bars—and a beach with a view of Angela Merkel.

At My Vanity

A Hair Stylist’s Secrets for Beauty, the French Way

Celebrity hairdresser Vinz, who has tended to the tresses of everyone from Kirsten Dunst to Caroline de Maigret, shares his top tips for glowing skin and ending bad hair days forever.

Video

Buzz Aldrin Developing Plan to Colonize Mars

1:09

Facebook's 'M' Takes on Siri and Google Now

3:36

Up to 50 Migrants Found Dead in Truck in Austria

0:32

On Wine: Will Lyons

Why Gin Is Back With a Flourish

Gin is experiencing the kind of boom the wine industry experienced in the mid-1980s, as boutique-distilled bottles with names like Half Hitch, Opihr and Ransom Old Tom give the classic G&T a new—and flavorful—twist

Music

Foals’ ‘What Went Down’ Is a Visceral Confessional

Yannis Philippakis, the lead singer whose energetic stage presence and novelistic lyrics have made Foals one of British rock’s most compelling propositions, talks about the band’s fourth album.

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WSJ Tech
Wie das Netz die Wirtschaft verändert

Apples Lisa: 30 Jahre Rechner mit der Maus

dapd
Lisa-Heimcomputer von Apple aus dem Jahre 1983.
Von dapd

Sie wurde verlacht, verspottet und schließlich in der Wüste verschrottet: Am 3. Januar vor 30 Jahren brachte Apple seine Lisa auf den Markt. Es war der erste massentaugliche Computer mit grafischer Benutzeroberfläche – und einer Maus.

Damit konnten erstmals auch Menschen Computer bedienen, die keine kryptischen Programmiersprachen beherrschen, wie der Kurator des nach eigenen Angaben größten Computermuseums der Welt in Paderborn, Michael Mikolajczak, sagt. Apple-Gründer Steve Jobs erkannte sofort das Potenzial dieser neuen Technik.

Allerdings war Lisa kein Verkaufsschlager – was sicher auch am stolzen Preis von zunächst 9.995 Dollar für das neuartige Gerät gelegen habe, sagt Mikolajczak. Später senkte Apple den Preis zwar auf zunächst 6.000 und später 3.000 Dollar. Es half nichts, Lisa blieb ein Ladenhüter. Keine 60.000 Stück gingen nach Schätzungen von US-Behörden weltweit über die Ladentheken.

Steve Jobs wurde auf Computer mit Maus aufmerksam

Ein weiterer Grund für den schlechten Absatz war die schon sprichwörtlich schwache Leistung. 1983, als der Computer auf den Markt kam, seien “Knock, knock”-Witze unter Computer-Pionieren populär geworden, erinnert sich Mikolajczak. “Man klopfte an die Tür, wartete ein paar Minuten und freute sich dann: Lisa ist da!” Mit einem fünf Megahertz starken Prozessor, einem Megabyte Arbeits-und fünf Megabyte Festplattenspeicher reagierte Lisa sehr behäbig auf Eingaben – und wurde so zum Synonym für Langsamkeit.

“Vielleicht wollte Steve Jobs zu schnell zu viel”, sagt Mikolajczak über den Misserfolg von damals. Der 2011 gestorbene Apple-Mitgründer war 1979 in einem Forschungslabor auf den Xerox Alto aufmerksam geworden. Dieser hatte als weltweit erster Rechner eine Maus und eine grafische Benutzeroberfläche – kam allerdings nicht in Serie auf den Massenmarkt.

Die ersten Ideen für die revolutionäre Bedienhilfe hatte der Erfinder Douglas C. Engelbarth bereits über zehn Jahre vor der Markteinführung von Lisa, wie Mikolajczak sagt. “Die waren noch aus Holz gebaut.” 1968 präsentierte Engelbarth seine erste Maus schließlich dem Fachpublikum. Zunächst gab es aber zu wenige Computer mit grafischer Benutzeroberfläche.

Verdrängt der Touchscreen die Maus?

Jobs habe sofort das wirtschaftliche Potenzial des Xerox-Computers erkannt und seine Entwickler angetrieben, etwas Ähnliches zu entwerfen. Allen Mahnungen zum Trotz äußerte er immer neue Wünsche für Lisa, die die Ingenieure auch verwirklichten - was den Preis allerdings auf knapp 10.000 Dollar trieb. “Jobs glaubte schon damals, dass ein Computer zum täglichen Leben dazugehören sollte”, sagt Mikolajczak.

Der Computer-Visionär erkannte, dass sich die Geräte dazu aber verändern mussten. Wenn Computer massentauglich werden sollten, brauchten sie ein besseres Design und eine einfachere Bedienung.

Lisas Ende in der Wüste

Lisa wurde schon 1985 bereits nach drei Jahren wieder vom Markt genommen, erklärt Mikolajczak. “Die Restbestände kaufte eine Entsorgungsfirma auf und verschredderte sie in der Wüste von Utah.” Heute gebe es nur noch wenige Geräte – trotzdem rissen sich die Sammler aber nicht um Lisa. “Sie war zu erfolglos”, sagt der Kurator.

Im Heinz-Nixdorf-Museumsforum in Paderborn stehe Lisa zwischen weitaus erfolgreicheren Apple-Produkten, sagt Mikolajczak. Trotz ihres Misserfolgs traten Maus und grafische Benutzeroberfläche aber ab Mitte der 80er Jahre einen Siegeszug an. Inzwischen wurden weltweit Milliarden Mäuse verkauft. Sie machten etwa Microsoft mit seinem Windows-Betriebssystem zum Weltmarktführer.

Derweil arbeiten die Branchengrößen längst daran, ihr Erfolgsmodell wieder überflüssig zu machen. Bildschirme, die direkt auf Berührung reagieren und ohne extra Zeigegerät auskommen, sind eben noch einfacher zu bedienen.

Eine Übersicht über die Geschichte der Apple-Produkte in Bildern finden Sie hier: Apples Innovationen.

 

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Über WSJ Tech

  • Apps, Crowdfunding, Cloud Computing – neue Technologien werfen die Regeln der Weltwirtschaft um. WSJ Tech erklärt technologische Trends, stellt interessante Entwicklungen vor und analysiert die wichtigsten Trends der IT-Wirtschaft.

    Die Autoren:

    Stephan DörnerStephan Dörner
    Jörgen CamrathJörgen Camrath
The Wall Street Journal & Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News, World News and Video
Search

Market Rally Loses Steam

A rally spurred by optimism over the U.S. economy and a rebound in commodity prices lost some steam Friday, as European shares and U.S. stock futures slipped.

China’s Turbulence Exposes Risks to Europe’s Growth

The eurozone’s heavy reliance on exports leaves the region vulnerable as emerging markets stumble.

Austria Says at Least 70 Migrants Found Dead in Truck

The number of migrants found dead in a truck off a highway outside of Vienna has been raised to more than 70, from an initial estimate of between 30 and 50.

Fed Urged to Press Ahead With Rate Rise

After months of forewarning by the Federal Reserve that it is preparing to raise short-term interest rates, some international officials have a message: Get on with it already.

IMAGE 1 of 9

‘Craft’ Bourbon Is in the Eye of the Distiller

“Craft” distilleries have mushroomed in the U.S. to 588 from 51 over the past decade. Feeling the heat from the new competition, global liquor conglomerates are getting in on the act, and not letting definitions get in the way.

Hacker Killed by Drone Was Islamic State’s ‘Secret Weapon’

That Islamic State’s Junaid Hussain was targeted directly by the U.S. and U.K. shows the extent to which digital warfare has upset the balance of power on the modern battlefield. 74

Big Oil Faces Prospect of Lower Refining Profits

For much of the past year, the world’s biggest energy companies suffered through an oil-price rout with one silver lining: Their little-loved refineries were churning out big profits again. Now, that bright spot could be fading, even as oil prices sink.

Anger Over Garbage in Lebanon Blossoms into Demands for Reform

Calls for political reform, however, collide with country’s entrenched, sectarian-based political system.

Ukraine’s U.S.-Born Finance Minister Praised for Persistence

Natalie Jaresko led months of tense negotiations with creditors, clocking thousands of air miles to reach a debt-relief deal that should help secure further bailout funds from the International Monetary Fund.

Ex-Archbishop Dies Ahead of Vatican Child Abuse Trial

The former papal nuncio to the Dominican Republic, who was under house arrest on charges of child abuse and possession of child pornography, has died, according to the Vatican.

Swiss Economy Beats Expectations

Switzerland’s economy grew in the second quarter, defying expectations that it would slip into its first recession in six years.

Eurozone Businesses, Households More Upbeat

Businesses and households across the eurozone became slightly more upbeat in August, an indication that the slowdown in economic growth during the second quarter is unlikely to turn into a more severe downturn.

Pentagon Advances Partnership with Tech Firms for Flexible Electronics

The Pentagon is announcing that it will contribute seed money to a consortium of Silicon Valley firms to develop what defense officials say is a promising new technology incorporating “flexible” electronics.

Sanctions Bite Massive Gas Project in Russian Arctic

A race to shore up funding for the $27 billion Yamal LNG energy project in the Russian Arctic has emerged as a test of Moscow’s ability to weather Western sanctions.

As China Celebrates Victory, Businesses Cope With Loss

Beijing ordered more than 10,000 factories to close or reduce output ahead of a high-profile military parade, crimping many businesses in the capital and leaving some workers without wages.

Hermès Warns of Currency Pressure

French luxury-goods company Hermès International warned that volatile currencies will erode its profitability in the second half of the year with profit seen rising more slowly than sales.

How Do You Short China?

Traders are scouring stock, bond and currency markets for ways to make money on the malaise afflicting China. Some are piling into insurance-like contracts that would pay out if the country defaulted on a small pool of its foreign-denominated bonds.

5 Days That Taught Investors All They Need to Know

A Wall Street veteran tells us it took just five days for him to learn all he needed to know about investing. The problem is, they've happened over the past 15 years.

Stock Halts Added to Monday’s Market Chaos

Monday’s mayhem in stocks appears to have been exacerbated by rules designed to ensure orderly trading, executives and traders said, the latest ripple from investors’ embrace of stock-linked funds.

China’s Banks Face Worst Year in More Than a Decade

China’s biggest lenders are scrambling to clear rising bad loans from their books, as a faltering economy weighs on loan repayments and sets banks on pace for their worst year since they began listing shares 13 years ago.

Heard on the Street

Stock Market Investors Should Watch the Credit Canary

The corporate bond market could give vital clues to equities investors about the outlook for growth and inflation.

Mansion

A Swedish Couple’s Lakeside Oasis

Entrepreneur Olof Sköld and his partner, Helene Carson, build a retreat for their family

Life

Adventure & Travel

Berlin’s Waterfront Heats Up for Travelers

The capital’s long-overlooked riverbanks are now party central, lined with hot hotels and bars—and a beach with a view of Angela Merkel.

At My Vanity

A Hair Stylist’s Secrets for Beauty, the French Way

Celebrity hairdresser Vinz, who has tended to the tresses of everyone from Kirsten Dunst to Caroline de Maigret, shares his top tips for glowing skin and ending bad hair days forever.

Video

Buzz Aldrin Developing Plan to Colonize Mars

1:09

Facebook's 'M' Takes on Siri and Google Now

3:36

Up to 50 Migrants Found Dead in Truck in Austria

0:32