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Migrant Crisis Divides Europe

Germany and France press the rest of Europe to end squabbling over its exploding numbers of refugees as Hungarian leader says his country doesn’t want ‘a large number of Muslim people.’ 101

Image of Syrian Boy Echoes Around World

The 3-year-old was a Syrian Kurd whose relatives’ efforts to emigrate to Canada had been rebuffed, according to media and Kurdish activists. 615

Chinese Navy Ships Passed Through U.S. Territorial Waters

Pentagon officials said for the first time that five Chinese navy ships operating off Alaska came within 12 nautical miles of the U.S. coast, entering U.S. territorial waters, but they complied with international law.

Inside Israel’s Bid to Derail Iran Pact

Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu has undertaken a high-stakes campaign to persuade Congress to scuttle the Iran nuclear agreement, leaving the White House infuriated and many Democrats resentful. 74

Investors Await Jobs Report, Last Before Fed Rate Decision

Friday’s jobs report is likely to be scrutinized more than most, now that the Federal Reserve is poised to raise interest rates, perhaps as early as this month. Economists expect a gain of 220,000 jobs in August.

ECB Willing to Expand Stimulus Amid Growth Worry

ECB President Mario Draghi indicated that the bank stands ready to expand its stimulus programs and projected slower-than-expected economic growth in the eurozone, as well as lower inflation rates.

Brussels Beat

EU Displaces U.S. as Top Antitrust Cop

The European Union’s antitrust activism has put it in prime position to shape the Internet and is encouraging some U.S. technology executives to focus on Brussels.

Volkswagen CFO Nominated as Board Chairman

The largest shareholder of Europe’s biggest auto maker nominated the company’s finance chief to become the next chairman of the VW supervisory board.

E-Book Sales Weaken Amid Higher Prices

E-book revenue is falling, and some people in the publishing industry say it is partly because of the higher prices that have resulted from new contracts negotiated with Amazon. 62

Jaguar Lowering Prices to Better Compete in U.S. Luxury Market

Jaguar is lowering prices in the U.S. to better play in the cutthroat environment luxury car brands face in appealing to American vehicle buyers.

Former Saab Board Members Hit With Forgery Charges

Former CEO Jan-Ake Jonsson and head lawyer Kristina Geers deny falsifying data to justify huge payments before car maker went bankrupt.

Facebook Advances Bazaar Ambitions

Facebook, which is trying to become a trading bazaar, is making it easier for its 1.49 billion users to buy, sell and trade used items from cars to waffle irons through Facebook groups.

UBS Building Virtual Coin For Mainstream Banking

Swiss bank UBS is working on a prototype virtual currency that it hopes will be used by banks and financial institutions as a basis to settle mainstream financial markets transactions.

Private-Equity Firms Plunge Back Into the Oil Patch

Private-equity firms are doubling down on energy, despite heavy damage from their last adventure in the sector.

Traders Ride the ETF Roller Coaster

Mom-and-pop investors who trade in exchange-traded funds and notes linked to commodities have experienced some of the roughest volatility over the past several weeks.

All-Night Push After Glitch Hit BNY Mellon

At the height of the Aug. 24 market volatility, executives at Bank of New York Mellon got the news they wanted to hear: A glitch affecting a key system was likely to be fixed soon. But the problem was far from over.

Saudi King’s Visit a Chance to Invigorate U.S. Alliance

King Salman of Saudi Arabia arrives Friday for his first White House visit at a pivotal time, when the two allies are trying to maintain their lukewarm agreement on the Iran nuclear deal while striving for new commitments.

Middle East Crossroads

Yemen’s Unity Frays in Leaderless Aden

The battles of recent months have reopened historic divisions between Yemen’s north and south, writes Yaroslav Trofimov.

NATO Opens Post in Lithuania

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization inaugurated a new command post in Lithuania, one of six across the alliance’s eastern border meant to shore up the region’s defenses against Russia.

Kentucky Clerk Jailed Over Gay Marriage Licenses

A federal judge declared a Kentucky county clerk who opposes same-sex marriage on religious grounds in contempt of court for defying his order to issue marriage licenses, and sent the clerk to jail until she complies. 2428

Off Duty

Adventure & Travel

Not Far From Prague, a Czech Village Worth Rhapsodizing About

The frozen-in-time town of Český Krumlov has scenery and history—and beer—that keeps travelers coming back.

Arts

Art

Sotheby’s to Auction $500 Million Taubman Art Collection

A day after Christie’s said it planned to sell a $100 million painting by Modigliani this fall, rival Sotheby’s countered by saying it has won the right to auction off the $500 million art collection of its former chairman and owner.

Film Review

‘La Jaula de Oro (The Golden Dream)’ Review: Dark Immigrant Odyssey

In Diego Quemada-Diez’s celebrated directorial debut, a trio of teenagers flee from Guatemala and make their way through a treacherous Mexico, where police and gangsters prey on vulnerable travelers.

Video

Father of Drowned Syrian Boy Describes His Sorrow

1:52

Tesla's New Model X SUV Finally Set for Delivery

2:25

Are Baby Monitor Flaws Inviting Hackers Into Homes?

3:45

Mind and Matter

The Power of Brains to Keep Growing

Not long ago, scientists thought that after infancy, our brains never added any neurons. Patricia Churchland on how brains keep growing

What to Read This Fall

Heavy hitters Elena Ferrante, Isabel Allende and Jonathan Franzen weigh in with new work, while first-time novelists Garth Risk Hallberg and Chinelo Okparanta offer buzzy debuts. Actress Mary-Louise Parker pens an unconventional memoir.

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WSJ Tech
Wie das Netz die Wirtschaft verändert

Facebook und die Schleswig-Holstein-Frage: Gibt es ein Recht auf Online-Anonymität?

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Zuletzt stand Schleswig-Holstein derart in den internationalen Schlagzeilen, als es im 19. Jahrhundert Zentrum des Kampfes zwischen Dänemark, Preußen und Österreich stand. Damals soll der britische Politiker Lord Palmerston gesagt haben, dass die Schleswig-Holstein-Frage so kompliziert sei, dass sie höchstens drei Männer in Europa jemals verstanden haben. „Einer davon war Prinz Albert, der tot ist. Der zweite war ein deutscher Professor, der verrückt wurde. Ich bin der dritte – und ich habe alles darüber vergessen“, scherzte der britische Lord seinerzeit.

Nun hat ein Mann das nördlichste Bundesland zurück in die Schlagzeilen gebracht: Thilo Weichert, der Landesdatenschutzbeauftragte von Schleswig-Holstein. Er hat eine Frage aufgeworfen, die so kompliziert ist, dass sie die ursprüngliche Schleswig-Holstein-Frage wie einen Kindergeburtstag aussehen lässt.

Im Dezember 2012 drohte Weichert Facebook erstmals mit einem Zwangsgeld, weil das Unternehmen die anonyme und pseudonyme Nutzung des sozialen Netzwerks nicht zulässt – was nach Auffassung Weicherts gegen deutsche Gesetze verstößt.  Inzwischen sind auch internationale Medien darauf aufmerksam geworden.

Facebook spricht von Steuergeldverschwendung

Facebook widerspricht Weichert. „Wir glauben, dass die Anweisungen sinnlos und eine Verschwendung von Steuergeldern sind, und wir werden uns ihnen energisch widersetzen“, heißt es vom Unternehmen. Doch in dieser Auseinandersetzung steckt mehr als die altbekannte Geschichte „Europäisches Land ist auf einen großen US-Konzern sauer“. Es geht hier um den Kern einer alten Internetdebatte: Haben wir das Recht auf Online-Anonymität?

Die Frage hat weitreichende Konsequenzen auch auf das normale Leben. Das irische Parlament untersucht die Rolle sozialer Internetmedien bei dem Selbstmord des irischen Politikers Shane McEntree. McEntree nahm sich nach einer Hetzkampagne das Leben, bei der auch sozialen Medien wie Facebook eine Rolle spielten.

Richard Allan, Directer of Policy von Facebook in Europa, verteidigt das Bestehen auf Klarnamen rigoros. Dem Unternehmen zufolge ist die Realname-Politik sowohl der Sicherheit als auch der zivilen Debattenkultur förderlich. „Wir tun das, weil es Grundlage dessen ist, was unsere Community definiert“, sagte er. „Sie soll dem echten Leben entsprechen. Dort würde man ja auch niemanden darüber belügen, wer man ist.“

Auch in der echten Welt gibt es Pseudonyme

dapd
Thilo Weichert.

Laut Simon Davies, ehemaliger Partner an der London School of Economics und Gründer der Organisation Privacy International, lässt Facebook bei seiner Darstellung von Interaktionen in der echten Welt aber einiges weg. „In der echten Welt gibt es unzählige Momente, in denen wir unseren Gegenüber nur per Pseudonym oder mit ihrer öffentlichen Identität kennen“, sagte er. „Wir entwickeln verschiedene Ebenen sozialer Interaktion. Wenn Facebook wirklich die volle Bandbreite der sozialen Interaktion ermöglichen will, die man beispielsweise in einer Kneipe findet, dann müssen sie Pseudonyme erlauben. Es gibt Leute, die nur mit ihrem Spitznamen bekannt sind. Wir können trotzdem ganz real mit diesen Leuten reden.“

Es komme darauf an, was wir wollen, sagt Davies. „Man muss unterscheiden, was Mechanismen für einen guten sozialen Austausch und was Mechanismen für ein sicheres soziales Netzwerk sind. Das ist nicht dasselbe.“

Brooke Magnanti schreibt heute für die Londoner Zeitung Daily Telegraph. Zuvor allerdings war sie Callgirl und schrieb einen Blog unter dem Pseudonym Belle de Jour über ihr Leben als Prostituierte. Sie sagt, dass der Verlust des Rechts auf Anonymität schwerer wiegen würde als jeder mögliche Schaden, der durch die missbräuchliche Nutzung von Anonymität entstehen kann.

Kritik im Schutz der Anonymität

Im Großbritannien der frühen 1660er Jahren unter der Regenschaft von König Charles II „wurde ein Drucker mit dem Namen John Twyn mit dem Tode bestraft, weil er den Namen eines anonymen Autors nicht nennen wollte, der kritisch über den König geschrieben hatte“, sagt Magnati. Zu allen Zeiten sei Anonymität genutzt worden, um repressive und autokratische Regierungen zu kritisieren.

„Wenn es um illegale Aktivitäten geht, werden Leute das Gesetz brechen – unabhängig davon, ob wir ihre Namen kennen. Für solche Fälle gibt es bereits Gesetze, wir brauchen nicht noch mehr“, sagt sie. Ihrer Meinung nach sollten die Gesetze nicht nur deshalb geändert werden, weil es eine neue und häufig missverstandene Technologie gibt.

Stört die eine Milliarde Facebook-Nutzer die fehlende Anonymität? Ganz und gar nicht. Die häufigste Beschwerde, die das Unternehmen derzeit bekommt, ist nicht, dass man keine anonyme Nutzung zulässt, sondern das genaue Gegenteil, sagt Allan. „Die Beschwerden, die wir bekommen, haben ganz häufig mit Nutzern zu tun, die falsche Identitäten auf Facebook nutzen. Ernsthafte Beschwerden von Nutzern,  die sich gerne als jemand anders präsentieren würden, gibt es nicht. Sie kommen von Aktivisten und Behörden, nicht von normalen Nutzern, deren Interesse das genaue Gegenteil ist.“

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Über WSJ Tech

  • Apps, Crowdfunding, Cloud Computing – neue Technologien werfen die Regeln der Weltwirtschaft um. WSJ Tech erklärt technologische Trends, stellt interessante Entwicklungen vor und analysiert die wichtigsten Trends der IT-Wirtschaft.

    Die Autoren:

    Stephan DörnerStephan Dörner
    Jörgen CamrathJörgen Camrath
The Wall Street Journal & Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News, World News and Video
Search

Migrant Crisis Divides Europe

Germany and France press the rest of Europe to end squabbling over its exploding numbers of refugees as Hungarian leader says his country doesn’t want ‘a large number of Muslim people.’ 99

Image of Syrian Boy Echoes Around World

The 3-year-old was a Syrian Kurd whose relatives’ efforts to emigrate to Canada had been rebuffed, according to media and Kurdish activists. 615

Inside Israel’s Bid to Derail Iran Pact

Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu has undertaken a high-stakes campaign to persuade Congress to scuttle the Iran nuclear agreement, leaving the White House infuriated and many Democrats resentful. 72

Investors Await Jobs Report, Last Before Fed Rate Decision

Friday’s jobs report is likely to be scrutinized more than most, now that the Federal Reserve is poised to raise interest rates, perhaps as early as this month. Economists expect a gain of 220,000 jobs in August.

ECB Willing to Expand Stimulus Amid Growth Worry

ECB President Mario Draghi indicated that the bank stands ready to expand its stimulus programs and projected slower-than-expected economic growth in the eurozone, as well as lower inflation rates.

Brussels Beat

EU Displaces U.S. as Top Antitrust Cop

The European Union’s antitrust activism has put it in prime position to shape the Internet and is encouraging some U.S. technology executives to focus on Brussels.

BASF, Gazprom Renew Abandoned Asset-Swap Plan

Germany’s BASF and Russia’s Gazprom will complete an asset-swap deal signed in December 2013 but called-off late last year amid mounting political tensions between Russia and the West.

Volkswagen CFO Nominated as Board Chairman

The largest shareholder of Europe’s biggest auto maker nominated the company’s finance chief to become the next chairman of the VW supervisory board.

E-Book Sales Weaken Amid Higher Prices

E-book revenue is falling, and some people in the publishing industry say it is partly because of the higher prices that have resulted from new contracts negotiated with Amazon. 62

Jaguar Lowering Prices to Better Compete in U.S. Luxury Market

Jaguar is lowering prices in the U.S. to better play in the cutthroat environment luxury car brands face in appealing to American vehicle buyers.

Former Saab Board Members Hit With Forgery Charges

Former CEO Jan-Ake Jonsson and head lawyer Kristina Geers deny falsifying data to justify huge payments before car maker went bankrupt.

Facebook Advances Bazaar Ambitions

Facebook, which is trying to become a trading bazaar, is making it easier for its 1.49 billion users to buy, sell and trade used items from cars to waffle irons through Facebook groups.

UBS Building Virtual Coin For Mainstream Banking

Swiss bank UBS is working on a prototype virtual currency that it hopes will be used by banks and financial institutions as a basis to settle mainstream financial markets transactions.

Private-Equity Firms Plunge Back Into the Oil Patch

Private-equity firms are doubling down on energy, despite heavy damage from their last adventure in the sector.

Traders Ride the ETF Roller Coaster

Mom-and-pop investors who trade in exchange-traded funds and notes linked to commodities have experienced some of the roughest volatility over the past several weeks.

All-Night Push After Glitch Hit BNY Mellon

At the height of the Aug. 24 market volatility, executives at Bank of New York Mellon got the news they wanted to hear: A glitch affecting a key system was likely to be fixed soon. But the problem was far from over.

Saudi King’s Visit a Chance to Invigorate U.S. Alliance

King Salman of Saudi Arabia arrives Friday for his first White House visit at a pivotal time, when the two allies are trying to maintain their lukewarm agreement on the Iran nuclear deal while striving for new commitments.

Middle East Crossroads

Yemen’s Unity Frays in Leaderless Aden

The battles of recent months have reopened historic divisions between Yemen’s north and south, writes Yaroslav Trofimov.

NATO Opens Post in Lithuania

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization inaugurated a new command post in Lithuania, one of six across the alliance’s eastern border meant to shore up the region’s defenses against Russia.

Kentucky Clerk Jailed Over Gay Marriage Licenses

A federal judge declared a Kentucky county clerk who opposes same-sex marriage on religious grounds in contempt of court for defying his order to issue marriage licenses, and sent the clerk to jail until she complies. 2424

Off Duty

Adventure & Travel

Not Far From Prague, a Czech Village Worth Rhapsodizing About

The frozen-in-time town of Český Krumlov has scenery and history—and beer—that keeps travelers coming back.

Arts

Art

Sotheby’s to Auction $500 Million Taubman Art Collection

A day after Christie’s said it planned to sell a $100 million painting by Modigliani this fall, rival Sotheby’s countered by saying it has won the right to auction off the $500 million art collection of its former chairman and owner.

Film Review

‘La Jaula de Oro (The Golden Dream)’ Review: Dark Immigrant Odyssey

In Diego Quemada-Diez’s celebrated directorial debut, a trio of teenagers flee from Guatemala and make their way through a treacherous Mexico, where police and gangsters prey on vulnerable travelers.

Video

Father of Drowned Syrian Boy Describes His Sorrow

1:52

Tesla's New Model X SUV Finally Set for Delivery

2:25

Are Baby Monitor Flaws Inviting Hackers Into Homes?

3:45